Thermal effect on Aequorea green fluorescent protein anionic and neutral chromophore forms fluorescence

J Fluoresc. 2012 Jan;22(1):151-4. doi: 10.1007/s10895-011-0941-0. Epub 2011 Aug 10.


The emission behaviour of Aequorea green fluorescent protein (A-GFP) chromophore, in both neutral (N) and anionic (A) form, was studied in the temperature range from 20 °C to 75 °C and at pH = 7. Excitation wavelengths of 399 nm and 476 nm were applied to probe the N and A forms environment, respectively. Both forms exhibit distinct fluorescence patterns at high temperature values. The emission quenching rate, following a temperature increase, is higher for the chromophore N form as a result of the hydrogen bond network weakening. The chromophore anionic form emission maximum is red shifted, upon temperature increase, due to a charge transfer process occurring after A form excitation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Temperature*


  • green fluorescent protein, Aequorea victoria
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins