Multiple new small molecules such as tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and proteasome inhibitors have been approved in the last decade and are a considerable progress for cancer therapy. Drug transporters are important determinants of drug concentrations in the systemic circulation. Moreover, expression of drug transporters in blood-tissue barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier) can limit access of small molecules to the tumour (e.g. brain tumour). Finally, transporter expression and (up)regulation in the tumour itself is known to affect local drug concentrations in the tumour tissue contributing to multidrug resistance observed for multiple anticancer agents. This review summarizes the current knowledge on: (i) small molecules as substrates of uptake and efflux transporters; (ii) the impact of transporter deficiency in knockout mouse models on plasma and tissue concentrations; (iii) small molecules as inhibitors of uptake and efflux transporters with possible consequences for drug-drug interactions and the reversal of multidrug resistance; and (iv) on clinical studies investigating the association of polymorphisms in genes encoding drug transporters with pharmacokinetics, outcome and toxicity during treatment with the small molecules.
© 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.