Substrate-specific protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is crucial for the proper function of the cell. Proteins are specifically recognized and ubiquitinated by the ubiquitin ligases (E3s) and are then degraded by the proteasome. BTB proteins act as the substrate recognition subunit that recruits their cognate substrates to the Cullin 3-based multisubunit E3s. Recently, it was reported that missense mutations in KLHL7, a BTB-Kelch protein, are related to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). However, the involvement of KLHL7 in the UPS and the outcome of the adRP causative mutations were unknown. In this study, we show that KLHL7 forms a dimer, assembles with Cul3 through its BTB and BACK domains, and exerts E3 activity. Lys-48-linked but not Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin chain co-localized with KLHL7, which increased upon proteasome inhibition suggesting that KLHL7 mediates protein degradation via UPS. An adRP-causative missense mutation in the BACK domain of KLHL7 attenuated only the Cul3 interaction but not dimerization. Nevertheless, the incorporation of the mutant as a heterodimer in the Cul3-KLHL7 complex diminished the E3 ligase activity. Together, our results suggest that KLHL7 constitutes a Cul3-based E3 and that the disease-causing mutation inhibits ligase activity in a dominant negative manner, which may lead to the inappropriate accumulation of the substrates targeted for proteasomal degradation.