Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is often observed in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) is effective for CSR, it remains unclear whether ASV improves the cardiac function and prognosis of patients with CHF and CSR.Sixty patients with CHF and CSR (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 38.7%, mean apnea hypopnea index 36.8 times/hour, mean central apnea index 19.1 times/hour) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: 23 patients treated with ASV (ASV group) and 37 patients treated without ASV (Non-ASV group). Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and echocardiography were performed before, 3 and 6 months after treatments in each group. Patients were followed-up for cardiac events (cardiac death and re-hospitalization) after discharge. In the ASV group, NYHA functional class, BNP levels, cardiac systolic and diastolic function were significantly improved with ASV treatment for 6 months. In contrast, none of these parameters changed in the Non-ASV group. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly demonstrated that the event-free rate was significantly higher in the ASV group than in the Non-ASV group.Adaptive servo ventilation improves cardiac function and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure and Cheyne-Stokes respiration.