Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE Consortium

PLoS Genet. 2011 Jul;7(7):e1002193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002193. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Abstract

Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in five population-based cohorts comprising 8,866 subjects of European ancestry. Minor alleles of SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) were associated with higher levels of ALA (p = 3 x 10⁻⁶⁴) and lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, p = 5 x 10⁻⁵⁸) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, p = 4 x 10⁻¹⁵⁴). Minor alleles of SNPs in ELOVL2 (elongase) were associated with higher EPA (p = 2 x 10⁻¹²) and DPA (p = 1 x 10⁻⁴³) and lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, p = 1 x 10⁻¹⁵). In addition to genes in the n-3 pathway, we identified a novel association of DPA with several SNPs in GCKR (glucokinase regulator, p = 1 x 10⁻⁸). We observed a weaker association between ALA and EPA among carriers of the minor allele of a representative SNP in FADS2 (rs1535), suggesting a lower rate of ALA-to-EPA conversion in these subjects. In samples of African, Chinese, and Hispanic ancestry, associations of n-3 PUFAs were similar with a representative SNP in FADS1 but less consistent with a representative SNP in ELOVL2. Our findings show that common variation in n-3 metabolic pathway genes and in GCKR influences plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFAs in populations of European ancestry and, for FADS1, in other ancestries.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Continental Population Groups / genetics
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / blood*
  • Female
  • Genetic Loci / genetics*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics

Substances

  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3

Grant support