CD40 is a cell surface receptor important in the activation of antigen-presenting cells during immune responses. In macrophages and dendritic cells, engagement of CD40 by its ligand CD154 provides signals critical for anti-microbial and T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. In B cells, CD40 signaling has a major role in regulating cell proliferation, antibody production, and memory B cell development. CD40 engagement results in the formation of a receptor-associated complex that mediates activation of NF-κB, stress-activated protein kinases, and other signaling molecules. However, the mechanisms that link CD40 to these signaling events have been only partially characterized. Known components of the CD40 signaling complex include members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of proteins. We previously showed that the TRAF family member TRAF2 mediates recruitment of HOIL-1L-interacting protein (HOIP) to the cytoplasmic domain of CD40, suggesting that HOIP has a role in the CD40 signaling pathway. To determine the role of HOIP in CD40 signaling, we used somatic cell gene targeting to generate mouse B cell lines deficient in HOIP. We found that the CD40-induced upregulation of CD80 and activation of germline immunoglobulin epsilon transcription were defective in HOIP-deficient cells. We also found that the CD40-mediated activation of NF-κB and c-Jun kinase was impaired. Recruitment of IκB kinase proteins to the CD40 signaling complex was undetectable in HOIP-deficient cells, potentially explaining the defect in NF-κB activation. Restoration of HOIP expression reversed the defects in cellular activation and signaling. These results reveal HOIP as a key component of the CD40 signaling pathway.