The transcriptional changes that occurred in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during colonization of the alimentary tract of newly hatched chickens were studied. A whole genome oligonucleotide microarray was used to compare the expression pattern with that from bacteria cultured in nutrient broth in vitro. Amongst other changes Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI)-1, SPI-2 and SPI-5 genes were up-regulated in vivo suggesting a close association with the mucosa during colonization. Particular attention was paid to genes associated with metabolism of dicarboxylic acids and to responses to high osmolarity. Association between the colonization phenotype and gene mutations indicated that the latter was more important as a contribution to the colonization phenotype.
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