Molecular features of colorectal hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenoma/polyps from Korea

Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Sep;35(9):1274-86. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e318224cd2e.

Abstract

Abundant recent data suggest that sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is an early precursor lesion in the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis. It is believed that SSA/Ps develop cancer by an SSA/P-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Hyperplastic polyps (HPs) share some histologic and molecular characteristics with SSA/P, but it is unclear whether SSA/Ps are derived from HPs or whether they develop by a different pathogenetic pathway. Previous studies have shown that serrated polyps from Korean patients show different prevalence rates of certain molecular abnormalities compared with similar lesions from American patients, and this suggests that lifestyle and dietary factors may influence the serrated neoplasia pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular features of HPs and SSA/Ps, the latter both with and without dysplasia, from Korean patients and to compare the findings with similar lesions from American patients. One hundred and eleven serrated polyps, consisting of 45 HPs (30 microvesicular, 11 goblet cell, 4 mucin depleted) and 56 SSA/Ps (36 with dysplasia, 20 without dysplasia), were retrieved from the pathology files of a large medical center in Korea and 38 SSA/P from American patients were evaluated for BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), hMLH1, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p16, methylated in tumor-1 (MINT-1), MINT2, and MINT31. Methylation of hMLH1 was performed using 2 different sets of primers. Twenty-three conventional adenomas from Korean patients were included as controls. The data were compared between polyp subtypes and between polyps in the right versus the left colon. With regard to HP, KRAS mutations were present in 31.1% of polyps and BRAF mutations in 46.7% of polyps. KRAS mutations were significantly more common in goblet cell HP and BRAF in microvesicular HP (MVHP). Methylation of MGMT, hMLH1, APC, p16, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31 were present in 42.2%, 64.4% (and 24.4%), 37.8%, 60%, 68.9%, 51.1%, and 60% of HPs. CpG island methylator phenotype high was noted in 60% of HPs. Methylation of hMLH1, p16, MINT2, and MINT31 were more frequent in MVHPs compared with other types of HPs. In contrast, SSA/Ps showed KRAS and BRAF mutations in 12.5% and 60.7% of cases, respectively. Methylation of all tumor-related genes, except hMLH1 (23.2% using 1 type of primers) and APC (37.5%), occurred in >50% of lesions, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) high was noted in 76.8% of cases. None of the molecular findings were significantly more common in SSA/P with, versus those without, dysplasia, but only 2 of the 36 polyps with dysplasia were of the conventional adenomatous type; the remainder (34 of 36) was of the serrated type. Nevertheless, both SSA/P with conventional adenomatous dysplasia showed methylation of MGMT, APC, MINT1, and MINT31 and were CIMP high. BRAF mutations, methylation of most tumor related genes, and CIMP high occurred more frequently in HPs and SSA/Ps in the right colon, compared with the left colon. In fact, no significant differences were observed between HPs and SSPs of the right colon and HPs and SSA/Ps from the left colon. Furthermore, compared with American patients, Korean male individuals were affected more frequently than female individuals, and both BRAF mutations and hMLH1 methylation were less frequent in the latter compared with the former. We conclude that HPs and SSA/Ps in Korean patients share some, but not all, clinical and molecular characteristics to those that occur in Americans. The data support the theory that the right and left colon are biologically different with regard to susceptibility to serrated cancer, and that anatomic location (right vs. left) may be a more significant risk factor of progression than the histologic type of polyp. Our data also support the theory that right-sided MVHPs may be a precursor to SSA/P.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics
  • Adenoma / ethnology
  • Adenoma / genetics*
  • Adenoma / pathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asians / genetics
  • Cadherins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Colonic Polyps / ethnology
  • Colonic Polyps / genetics*
  • Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA Modification Methylases / genetics
  • DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Genes, APC
  • Genes, p16
  • Humans
  • Hyperplasia
  • Intestinal Polyps / ethnology
  • Intestinal Polyps / genetics*
  • Intestinal Polyps / pathology
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Microsatellite Instability
  • Middle Aged
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • Mutation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Rectal Diseases / ethnology
  • Rectal Diseases / genetics
  • Rectal Diseases / pathology
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult
  • ras Proteins / genetics

Substances

  • APBA1 protein, human
  • APBA2 protein, human
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Cadherins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • KRAS protein, human
  • MLH1 protein, human
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Modification Methylases
  • MGMT protein, human
  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • ras Proteins
  • DNA Repair Enzymes