Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to monovalent 2009 influenza A/H1N1 and seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in high-risk children

J Pediatr. 2012 Jan;160(1):74-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.045. Epub 2011 Aug 15.


Objective: Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1/2009) and seasonal trivalent influenza (TIV) vaccines were evaluated in healthy children and children with asthma, sickle cell disease (SCD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and solid organ transplantation (SOT).

Study design: Blood was collected from 112 subjects at the time of H1N1/2009 vaccination and 46 ± 15 days later for hemagglutination inhibition titers and γ-interferon ELISPOT responses to H1N1/2009 vaccine and TIV; unvaccinated children also received TIV at enrollment.

Results: A significant increase in the percentage of subjects with seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition titers to both vaccines was observed in all high-risk groups. Children with asthma and SCD were most likely to achieve seroprotective titers to H1N1/2009, whereas <50% of subjects with SOT and SLE had a seroprotective response. Subjects with SOT and SLE also had lower rates of seroprotection after TIV, and subjects with SLE had the lowest ELISPOT responses to both vaccines. Overall, 73% of healthy children exhibited protective responses to TIV; only 35% achieved seroprotection for H1N1/2009.

Conclusions: This evaluation of immune responses to H1N1/2009 in high-risk children suggests suboptimal responses for SOT and SLE subjects, but not for subjects with SCD or asthma. Higher antigen dose, additional dose regimens, or both for immunocompromised children warrant further investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular*
  • Immunity, Humoral*
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male
  • Risk Factors


  • Influenza Vaccines