Influence of gaseous ozone in peri-implantitis: bactericidal efficacy and cellular response. An in vitro study using titanium and zirconia

Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Aug;16(4):1049-59. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0603-2. Epub 2011 Aug 13.


Dental implants are prone to bacterial colonization which may result in bone destruction and implant loss. Treatments of peri-implant disease aim to reduce bacterial adherence while leaving the implant surface intact for attachment of bone-regenerating host cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of gaseous ozone on bacteria adhered to various titanium and zirconia surfaces and to evaluate adhesion of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells to ozone-treated surfaces. Saliva-coated titanium (SLA and polished) and zirconia (acid etched and polished) disks served as substrates for the adherence of Streptococcus sanguinis DSM20068 and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC33277. The test specimens were treated with gaseous ozone (140 ppm; 33 mL/s) for 6 and 24 s. Bacteria were resuspended using ultrasonication, serially diluted and cultured. MG-63 cell adhesion was analyzed with reference to cell attachment, morphology, spreading, and proliferation. Surface topography as well as cell morphology of the test specimens were inspected by SEM. The highest bacterial adherence was found on titanium SLA whereas the other surfaces revealed 50-75% less adherent bacteria. P. gingivalis was eliminated by ozone from all surfaces within 24 s to below the detection limit (≥99.94% reduction). S. sanguinis was more resistant and showed the highest reduction on zirconia substrates (>90% reduction). Ozone treatment did not affect the surface structures of the test specimens and did not influence osteoblastic cell adhesion and proliferation negatively. Titanium (polished) and zirconia (acid etched and polished) had a lower colonization potential and may be suitable material for implant abutments. Gaseous ozone showed selective efficacy to reduce adherent bacteria on titanium and zirconia without affecting adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic cells. This in vitro study may provide a solid basis for clinical studies on gaseous ozone treatment of peri-implantitis and revealed an essential base for sufficient tissue regeneration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acid Etching, Dental / methods
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Shape / drug effects
  • Chlorhexidine / pharmacology
  • Dental Etching / methods
  • Dental Materials / chemistry*
  • Dental Polishing / methods
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Osteoblasts / drug effects*
  • Oxidants / pharmacology*
  • Ozone / pharmacology*
  • Peri-Implantitis / microbiology*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / drug effects*
  • Saliva / chemistry
  • Streptococcus sanguis / drug effects*
  • Surface Properties
  • Time Factors
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Yttrium / chemistry
  • Zirconium / chemistry*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Dental Materials
  • Oxidants
  • yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia
  • Yttrium
  • Ozone
  • Zirconium
  • Titanium
  • Chlorhexidine
  • zirconium oxide