T lymphocytes play a vital role in antimalaria immunity, but there is little information about the role of T cells in malaria infection. In order to explore the profile of T cells in malaria immunity, we infected Chinese rhesus macaques with the malaria parasite (Plasmodium cynomolgi) and examined the dynamics of T cell subsets. Both repeated and long-term infections were involved. Our results showed that the monkeys in the repeated infection group acquired protective immunity through primary infection, which was evidenced by a much lower parasitemia, milder anemia, and milder fever during reinfection; the monkeys in the long-term infection group also developed protective immunity, but this was not sufficient to eliminate the parasite. The total counts of leukocytes, neutrophils, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, and naïve and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells declined during the acute phase of malaria but increased after the parasite was controlled. The total number of activated CD4+ T cells significantly increased during malaria in animals with a long-term infection, which remained at least 3 months after the termination of malaria. However, the activated CD4+ T cells decreased during the acute phase of infection in the repeated infection group and converted to preinfection levels after malaria was cured. Regulatory CD4+ T cells continued to increase during the malaria infections and quickly reverted to preinfection levels after the parasite was controlled. Our study provides a systematic analysis of the kinetic profiles of T lymphocyte subsets during malaria infections and provides some experimental insight into malaria immunology.