Validation of an abbreviated adherence measure for young people with Type 1 diabetes

Diabet Med. 2011 Sep;28(9):1113-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03321.x.


Aims: Adherence to diabetes-related tasks is an important construct. The Diabetes Self-Management Profile is a validated, semi-structured interview assessing adherence in paediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes. We created and validated a brief questionnaire version of the Diabetes Self-Management Profile called the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire.

Methods: Young people with Type 1 diabetes, ages 9-15 years (n = 338) and their parents provided data from chart review, interview and questionnaires.

Results: Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire scores correlated significantly with Diabetes Self-Management Profile scores, HbA(1c) , blood glucose monitoring frequency and other measures associated with adherence and/or glycaemic control (P ≤ 0.01 for all). Young people and parent scores were correlated (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001). The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire demonstrated modest internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.59), adequate for a brief measure of multidimensional adherence. In addition, factor analysis confirmed one factor.

Conclusions: This brief adherence questionnaire demonstrated construct validity in young people 9-15 years old and their parents and may have utility in clinical and research settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring*
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology
  • Diet, Diabetic* / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence* / psychology
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Self Care
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Blood Glucose