Impact of divalent metal ions on regulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms by forskolin analogs

Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Dec 1;82(11):1673-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.099. Epub 2011 Aug 6.


Mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclases (mACs) play an important role in transmembrane signalling events in almost every cell and represent an interesting drug target. Forskolin (FS) is an invaluable research tool, activating AC isoforms 1-8. However, there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective FS analogs. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and six FS derivatives on recombinant ACs 1, 2 and 5, representing members of different mAC families. Correlations of the pharmacological properties of the different AC isoforms revealed pronounced differences between ACs 1, 2 and 5. Additionally, potencies and efficacies of FS derivatives changed for any given AC isoform, depending on the metal ion, Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). The most striking effects of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) on the diterpene profile were observed for AC2 where the large inhibitory effect of BODIPY-FS in the presence of Mg(2+) was considerably reduced in the presence of Mn(2+). Sequence alignment and docking experiments confirmed an exceptional position of AC2 compared to ACs 1 and 5 with respect to the structural environment of the catalytic core and cation-dependent diterpene effects. In conclusion, mAC isoforms 1, 2 and 5 exhibit a distinct pharmacological diterpene profile, depending on the divalent cation present. mAC crystal structures and modelling/docking studies provided an explanation for the pharmacological differences between the AC isoforms. Our study constitutes an important step towards the development of isoform-specific diterpenes exhibiting stimulatory or inhibitory effects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cations, Divalent
  • Cattle
  • Cell Line
  • Colforsin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Colforsin / chemistry
  • Colforsin / pharmacology*
  • Dogs
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry
  • Fluorescent Dyes / pharmacology
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Magnesium Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Manganese / pharmacology*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Cations, Divalent
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Isoenzymes
  • Magnesium Compounds
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Colforsin
  • Manganese
  • Adenylyl Cyclases