Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to provide an update on the different forms of monogenic diabetes, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and neonatal diabetes (permanent and transient neonatal diabetes).
Recent findings: Monogenic diabetes accounts for approximately 1-2% of diabetes cases and results from mutations that primarily reduce β-cell function. Individuals with islet autoantibody negative youth-onset forms of diabetes should be evaluated for either glucokinase-MODY or transcription factors MODY. The mild-fasting hyperglycemia found in glucokinase-MODY typically does not necessitate pharmacological treatment, whereas patients with MODY caused by transcription factor mutations can often be successfully treated with low-dose sulfonylurea. Neonatal diabetes is defined as diabetes onset within the first 6 months of life and most individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes can be treated with high-dose sulfonylurea.
Summary: The discovery of the genetic cause of monogenic diabetes has greatly advanced our understanding and management of these uncommon forms of diabetes.