Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

J Med Entomol. 2011 Jul;48(4):822-7. doi: 10.1603/me10140.


Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acaricides / chemistry
  • Acaricides / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Garlic / chemistry*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Ixodidae / drug effects*
  • Ixodidae / growth & development
  • Larva / drug effects
  • Lippia / chemistry*
  • Mexico
  • Oils, Volatile / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology
  • Rhipicephalus / drug effects*
  • Rosmarinus / chemistry*


  • Acaricides
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils