Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer

Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb;107(4):473-84. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511003308. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Abstract

It is appreciated far and wide that increased and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked with noteworthy anticancer benefits. Extensively consumed as a spice in foods and beverages worldwide, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an excellent source of several bioactive phenolics, including non-volatile pungent compounds such as gingerols, paradols, shogaols and gingerones. Ginger has been known to display anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, indicating its promising role as a chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that whole ginger extract (GE) exerts significant growth-inhibitory and death-inductory effects in a spectrum of prostate cancer cells. Comprehensive studies have confirmed that GE perturbed cell-cycle progression, impaired reproductive capacity, modulated cell-cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced a caspase-driven, mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Remarkably, daily oral feeding of 100 mg/kg body weight of GE inhibited growth and progression of PC-3 xenografts by approximately 56 % in nude mice, as shown by measurements of tumour volume. Tumour tissue from GE-treated mice showed reduced proliferation index and widespread apoptosis compared with controls, as determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods. Most importantly, GE did not exert any detectable toxicity in normal, rapidly dividing tissues such as gut and bone marrow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of whole GE for the management of prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Dietary Supplements* / adverse effects
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Plant Extracts / adverse effects
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diet therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Rhizome / chemistry*
  • Tumor Burden
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Plant Extracts