The incretin and food intake suppressive effects of intraperitoneally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) involve activation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) expressed on vagal afferent fiber terminals. Central nervous system processing of GLP-1R-driven vagal afferents results in satiation signaling and enhanced insulin secretion from pancreatic-projecting vagal efferents. As the vast majority of endogenous GLP-1 is released from intestinal l-cells following ingestion, it stands to reason that paracrine GLP-1 signaling, activating adjacent GLP-1R expressed on vagal afferent fibers of gastrointestinal origin, contributes to glycemic and food intake control. However, systemic GLP-1R-mediated control of glycemia is currently attributed to endocrine action involving GLP-1R expressed in the hepatoportal bed on terminals of the common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHB). Here, we examine the hypothesis that activation of GLP-1R expressed on the CHB is not required for GLP-1's glycemic and intake suppressive effects, but rather paracrine signaling on non-CHB vagal afferents is required to mediate GLP-1's effects. Selective CHB ablation (CHBX), complete subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), and surgical control rats received an oral glucose tolerance test (2.0 g glucose/kg) 10 min after an intraperitoneal injection of the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-(9-39) (Ex-9; 0.5 mg/kg) or vehicle. CHBX and control rats showed comparable increases in blood glucose following blockade of GLP-1R by Ex-9, whereas SDA rats failed to show a GLP-1R-mediated incretin response. Furthermore, GLP-1(7-36) (0.5 mg/kg ip) produced a comparable suppression of 1-h 25% glucose intake in both CHBX and control rats, whereas intake suppression in SDA rats was blunted. These findings support the hypothesis that systemic GLP-1R mediation of glycemic control and food intake suppression involves paracrine-like signaling on GLP-1R expressed on vagal afferent fibers of gastrointestinal origin but does not require the CHB.