Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a single-gene disorder of the cerebral small blood vessels caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Several characteristic population-specific clinical phenotypes and neuroimaging features have been reported in CADASIL. This study investigated the clinical stroke presentation and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a group of patients with CADASIL. We reviewed the clinical stroke presentation and brain MRI findings in 73 consecutive Korean patients aged >18 years diagnosed with CADASIL between May 2004 and April 2009. Brain MRI images were also scored for lacunar infarction and cerebral microbleeds. Intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) was assessed by magnetic resonance angiography. Disability was measured with the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and classified as good (mRS score 0-2) or poor (mRS score 3-5). In this study, 65 of the 73 patients (90.3%) had the same R544C genotype. A total of 40 episodes of cerebral infarction were confirmed in 31 patients, with a mean age at onset of 58.8 ± 11.4 years (range, 38-76 years). Twelve patients (16.9%) had ICAS, and 5 of these patients had symptomatic stenoses. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients (12.3%). Both intracerebral hemorrhage and ICAS were associated with poor clinical outcome. Our data demonstrate the diversity of clinical stroke presentation according to ethnicity and vascular risk factors.
Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.