Background and objectives: Observational studies have reported an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and microalbuminuria or proteinuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with varying risk estimates. We aimed to systematically review the association between MetS, its components, and development of microalbuminuria or proteinuria and CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS AND POPULATION: We searched MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), SCOPUS, and the Web of Science for prospective cohort confidence interval (CI) studies that reported the development of microalbuminuria or proteinuria and/or CKD in participants with MetS. Risk estimates for eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) were extracted from individual studies and pooled using a random effects model. The results for proteinuria outcomes were not pooled because of the small number of studies.
Results: Eleven studies (n = 30,146) were included. MetS was significantly associated with the development of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34, 1.80). The strength of this association seemed to increase as the number of components of MetS increased (trend P value = 0.02). In patients with MetS, the odds ratios (95% CI) for development of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for individual components of MetS were: elevated blood pressure 1.61 (1.29, 2.01), elevated triglycerides 1.27 (1.11, 1.46), low HDL cholesterol 1.23 (1.12, 1.36), abdominal obesity 1.19 (1.05, 1.34), and impaired fasting glucose 1.14 (1.03, 1.26). Three studies reported an increased risk for development of microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria with MetS.
Conclusions: MetS and its components are associated with the development of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria.