Mendel: A Simple Excel Workbook to Compare the Observed and Expected Distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in Transgenic and Knockout Mouse Crosses Involving Up to Three Unlinked Loci by Means of a χ2 Test

Transgenic Res. 2012 Jun;21(3):677-81. doi: 10.1007/s11248-011-9544-4. Epub 2011 Aug 19.


The analysis of transgenic and knockout mice always involves the establishment of matings with individuals carrying different loci, segregating independently, whose presence is expected among the progeny, according to a Mendelian distribution. The appearance of distorted inheritance ratios suggests the existence of unexpected lethal or sub-lethal phenotypes associated with some genotypes. These situations are common in a number of cases, including: testing transgenic founder mice for germ-line transmission of their transgenes; setting up heterozygous crosses to obtain homozygous individuals, both for transgenic and knockout mice; establishing matings between floxed mouse lines and suitable cre transgenic mouse lines, etc. The Pearson's χ(2) test can be used to assess the significance of the observed frequencies of genotypes/phenotypes in relation to the expected values, in order to determine whether the observed cases fit the expected distribution. Here, I describe a simple Excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a χ(2) test. The file is freely available for download from my laboratory's web page at: .

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Breeding
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Crosses, Genetic*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genotype*
  • Inheritance Patterns
  • Internet
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Phenotype*
  • Software*