Impact of anatomical and socioeconomic factors on timing of urological consultation for boys with cryptorchidism

J Urol. 2011 Oct;186(4 Suppl):1601-5. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.03.102. Epub 2011 Aug 19.


Purpose: Cryptorchidism is a common finding in infants and young boys. Early repair lessens the extent of testicular injury. We hypothesized that anatomical and socioeconomic factors affect the timing of consultation and treatment for boys with cryptorchidism.

Materials and methods: Under an institutional review board approved protocol we reviewed the records at a single institution of children who underwent exploration for unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Demographic and anatomical factors were recorded.

Results: The median age of 677 boys at consultation and surgery was 20.3 and 28.9 months, respectively. Median age at consultation for boys with nonpalpable and palpable testicles was 12.3 and 20.9 months, respectively (p = 0.03). Boys with a concomitant penile anomaly had a younger median age at consultation than boys without a penile anomaly (8.5 vs 20.3 months, p <0.01). Demographic factors did not vary with respect to time to consultation and surgery (p >0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that abdominal site and concomitant penile anomaly were associated with earlier time to consultation (p = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: The timing of consultation for boys with undescended testicles does not vary in regard to race, language or insurance type at this tertiary care institution. Instead, anatomical factors influenced age at consultation for boys with cryptorchidism. This suggests that in some geographic regions access to care is not restricted for minorities or noncommercially insured children.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • California / epidemiology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cost of Illness*
  • Cryptorchidism / diagnosis*
  • Cryptorchidism / epidemiology
  • Cryptorchidism / surgery
  • Early Diagnosis*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Insurance Coverage / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Orchiopexy / methods
  • Penis / anatomy & histology*
  • Prognosis
  • Referral and Consultation / economics*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Testis / anatomy & histology*
  • Time Factors