Aims/hypothesis: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between vitamin D intake and status and the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and subsequent type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
Methods: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) in Denver, CO, USA, has been following children at increased risk of diabetes since 1993. As of February 2011, 198 children developed IA during follow-up of 2,644 DAISY children. Vitamin D intake and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured longitudinally. Proportional hazards regression analyses of time to IA, or type 1 diabetes in IA-positive children, were conducted, with vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D as time-varying covariates. HRs were calculated for a standard deviation difference in exposure, with adjustment for confounders.
Results: Intake of vitamin D was not associated with the risk of IA (adjusted HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.95, 1.35; p = 0.18) nor progression to diabetes in IA-positive children (adjusted HR 1.30; 95% CI 0.91, 1.86; p = 0.15). Moreover, 25(OH)D level was not associated with the risk of IA (adjusted HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88, 1.43; p = 0.36), nor progression to diabetes in IA-positive children (adjusted HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.68, 1.22; p = 0.54). In the 128 children in whom we measured 25(OH)D at 9 months of age, 25(OH)D was not associated with risk of IA (n = 30 IA-positive children) (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.96, 1.07; p = 0.58).
Conclusions/interpretation: Neither vitamin D intake nor 25(OH)D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population.