Vx-001, an HLA-A*0201 restricted telomerase (TERT)-specific anti-tumor vaccine, is composed of the 9-mer cryptic TERT(572) peptide and its optimized variant TERT(572Y). We have previously shown that Vx-001 is non-toxic, highly immunogenic and in vaccinated NSCLC patients early specific immune response is associated with prolonged survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific T-cell immune response against Vx-001. Fifty-five patients with chemo-resistant advanced solid tumors were vaccinated with TERT(572Y) (2 subcutaneous injections) followed by TERT(572) peptide (4 subcutaneous injections) every 3 weeks. Specific immune response was evaluated by IFN-γ and perforin ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining assays. TERT-reactive T cells were detected in 27 (51%) out of 53 evaluable patients after the 2nd vaccination and in 22 (69%) out of 32 evaluable patients after the completion of 6 vaccinations. Immune responses developed irrespective of the stage of disease and disease status before vaccination. Patients with disease progression at study entry who developed a post-vaccination-induced immunological response had a significant overall survival benefit compared to the post-vaccination non-responders. The Vx-001 vaccine is a promising candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it can induce a TERT-specific T-cell immune response that is associated with prolonged survival.