Neurogenetics and clinical evidence for the putative activation of the brain reward circuitry by a neuroadaptagen: proposing an addiction candidate gene panel map

J Psychoactive Drugs. 2011 Apr-Jun;43(2):108-27. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2011.587393.


This document presents evidence supporting the role of the KB220/KB220Z neuroadaptagens consisting of amino-acid neurotransmitter precursors and enkephalinase-catecholamine-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibition therapy called Neuroadaptagen Amino Acid Therapy (NAAT) in brain reward function. It is becoming increasingly clear that this novel formulation is the first neuroadaptagen known to activate the brain reward circuitry. Ongoing research repeatedly confirms the numerous clinical effects that ultimately result in significant benefits for victims having genetic antecedents for all addictive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors. These behaviors are correctly classified under the rubric of"Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS). We are proposing a novel addiction candidate gene map. We present preliminary findings in the United States using qEGG and in China using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) regarding the effects of oral NAAT on the activation of brain reward circuitry in victims of SUD. In unpublished data utilizing an fMRI 2X2 design at resting state, NAAT in comparison to placebo shows activation of the caudate brain region and potentially a smoothing out of heroin-induced putamen (a site for emotionality) abnormal connectivity. Although awaiting final analysis, if confirmed by ongoing studies in China coupled with published qEEG results in America, showing an increase in alpha and low beta, NAAT may be shown to impact treatment outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / genetics
  • Alcoholism / psychology
  • Amino Acids / therapeutic use
  • Behavior, Addictive / genetics
  • Behavior, Addictive / psychology
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Brain Chemistry / genetics*
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Dopamine / biosynthesis
  • Dopamine / physiology
  • Electroencephalography
  • Gene Frequency
  • Neural Pathways / enzymology
  • Neural Pathways / physiology*
  • Nutritional Support
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • Reward*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / genetics*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology


  • Amino Acids
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Dopamine