Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos

Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Sep;30(3):158-69. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2011.596603.


Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / radiation effects*
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Chick Embryo
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / radiation effects*
  • Incubators
  • Liver / cytology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / radiation effects*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics*
  • beta Catenin / genetics*


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • beta Catenin