Cytokine adjuvants for vaccine therapy of neoplastic and infectious disease

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2011 Aug;22(4):177-87. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Aug 20.


Vaccination, the revolutionary prophylactic immunotherapy developed in the eighteenth century, has become the most successful and cost-effective of medical remedies available to modern society. Due to the remarkable accomplishments of the past century, the number of diseases and pathogens for which a traditional vaccine approach might reasonably be employed has dwindled to unprecedented levels. While this happy scenario bodes well for the future of public health, modern immunologists and vaccinologists face significant challenges if we are to address the scourge of recalcitrant pathogens like HIV and HCV and well as the significant obstacles to immunotherapy imposed by neoplastic self. Here, the authors review the clinical and preclinical literature to highlight the manner by which the host immune system can be successfully manipulated by cytokine adjuvants, thereby significantly enhancing the efficacy of a wide variety of vaccination platforms.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / history
  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology
  • AIDS Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / history
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Cancer Vaccines / history
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Cytokines / history
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / therapeutic use*
  • History, 18th Century
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Vaccination / history
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines / history
  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines / immunology
  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines / therapeutic use*


  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Cytokines
  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines