Vaccination, the revolutionary prophylactic immunotherapy developed in the eighteenth century, has become the most successful and cost-effective of medical remedies available to modern society. Due to the remarkable accomplishments of the past century, the number of diseases and pathogens for which a traditional vaccine approach might reasonably be employed has dwindled to unprecedented levels. While this happy scenario bodes well for the future of public health, modern immunologists and vaccinologists face significant challenges if we are to address the scourge of recalcitrant pathogens like HIV and HCV and well as the significant obstacles to immunotherapy imposed by neoplastic self. Here, the authors review the clinical and preclinical literature to highlight the manner by which the host immune system can be successfully manipulated by cytokine adjuvants, thereby significantly enhancing the efficacy of a wide variety of vaccination platforms.
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