Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) are a subgroup of proteins with one or more jacalin-like lectin domains. Although JRLs are often associated with biotic or abiotic stimuli, their biological functions in plants, as well as their relationships to plant disease resistance, are poorly understood. A mannose-specific JRL (mJRL)-like gene (TaJRLL1) that is mainly expressed in stem and spike and encodes a protein with two jacalin-like lectin domains was identified in wheat. Pathogen infection and phytohormone treatments induced its expression; while application of the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol and the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid, respectively, substantially inhibited its expression. Attenuating TaJRLL1 through virus-induced gene silencing increased susceptibility to the facultative fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with TaJRLL1 displayed increased resistance to F. graminearum and Botrytis cinerea. JA and SA levels in transgenic Arabidopsis increased significantly. A loss or increase of disease resistance due to an alteration in TaJRLL1 function was correlated with attenuation or enhancement of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. These results suggest that TaJRLL1 could be a component of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways.