Heyde's syndrome: A critical review of the literature

J Heart Valve Dis. 2011 Jul;20(4):366-75.


Heyde's syndrome is an uncommon association between aortic stenosis and gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initially described during the late 1950s, with subsequent reports of a possible link between these disorders, controversy persists regarding the incidence, pathogenesis, and treatment of this syndrome. The main disagreements center on the actual association of aortic stenosis and angiodysplasia, though other controversies include the pathogenesis of Heyde's syndrome, ranging from von Willebrand factor deficiency and age-related degeneration to mucosal ischemia and cholesterol embolization. A variety of treatment modalities of the syndrome has been applied, including medical management, endoscopic therapy, embolization, and aortic valve replacement. Here, the controversies surrounding Heyde's syndrome, which focus on pathogenesis and treatment, are reviewed with the aim of providing a clearer understanding of the syndrome and the implications for patient care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple*
  • Angiodysplasia* / diagnosis
  • Angiodysplasia* / epidemiology
  • Angiodysplasia* / therapy
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnosis
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / epidemiology
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / therapy
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / diagnosis
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Morbidity
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Syndrome
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods