Ginger extracts have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. -shogaol is one of the most bioactive components of ginger rhizomes. This study assessed the -shogaol's ability to protect cultured primary rat astrocytes against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. -shogaol was shown to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased the level of inducible nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phospho-NF-kB in LPS-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, -shogaol treatment markedly up-regulated histone H3 acetylation and suppressed histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 expression. In addition, -shogaol treatment also increased the expression of heat-shock protein (HSP)70. The neuroprotective, neurotrphic, and anti-inflammatory properties of -shogaol may be translated to improvements in neurological performance. -Shogaol's ability to inhibit HDAC was comparable to that of commonly used HDAC inhibitors Trichostatin A and MS275. Taken together, our results suggest that -shogaol can significantly attenuate a variety of neuroinflammatory responses by inducing HSP70, that is associated with HDAC inhibition in cortical astrocytes.
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