Anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-shogaol: potential roles of HDAC inhibition and HSP70 induction

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Nov;49(11):2734-40. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.08.012. Epub 2011 Aug 16.


Ginger extracts have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. [6]-shogaol is one of the most bioactive components of ginger rhizomes. This study assessed the [6]-shogaol's ability to protect cultured primary rat astrocytes against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. [6]-shogaol was shown to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased the level of inducible nitric oxide syntheses (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phospho-NF-kB in LPS-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, [6]-shogaol treatment markedly up-regulated histone H3 acetylation and suppressed histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 expression. In addition, [6]-shogaol treatment also increased the expression of heat-shock protein (HSP)70. The neuroprotective, neurotrphic, and anti-inflammatory properties of [6]-shogaol may be translated to improvements in neurological performance. [6]-Shogaol's ability to inhibit HDAC was comparable to that of commonly used HDAC inhibitors Trichostatin A and MS275. Taken together, our results suggest that [6]-shogaol can significantly attenuate a variety of neuroinflammatory responses by inducing HSP70, that is associated with HDAC inhibition in cortical astrocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Astrocytes / drug effects*
  • Catechols / therapeutic use*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Heat Shock Transcription Factors
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Catechols
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Heat Shock Transcription Factors
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Transcription Factors
  • shogaol
  • Histone Deacetylases