Today, many medical interventions that begin as treatments for disease often expand into therapies that reduce disability, lessen disadvantage, or even confer advantage. Forces that propel profitable drugs, devices, and procedures dominate over considerations of efficient and equitable distribution of resources. This dominance is fueled by industry-physician collaborations often biased by prior assumptions, reliant on surrogate outcomes, and advantageous to marketing. Interventions are justified by "medicalization" of physiologic variations (e.g. short stature) as defects or disease, and nudged into "standard practice" by key opinion leaders. The story below of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) treatment of short stature is one vivid example, but others (e.g. expansion of drug treatment to "optimize" cholesterol profiles, bone health, psychological well-being) can be found throughout medicine. In the new obesity era, lessons learned from the hGH era will be needed to keep the field of pediatric endocrinology empowered to make the key clinical decisions, and free of unintended consequences for patients and runaway health care inflation for society.