Bortezomib (Velcade®) is a proteasome inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. It has been shown to inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, and NFκB activation, to deplete alloreactive T lymphocytes, and to decrease Th1 cytokine production. The anti-inflammatory effects of bortezomib were further investigated in this current set of studies. Systemic treatment with bortezomib was efficacious in the thioglycolate-induced MCP-1 production model, and the dinitrofluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity model. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that affects about 2% of the world population. Many treatments have been reported with varying degrees of efficacy. A topical bortezomib formulation was developed to minimize systemic exposure. Its tolerability was investigated in a topical imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis model. Daily application of IMQ on mouse skin induced inflamed scaly skin lesions resembling plaque-type psoriasis. Fatality was observed in the 1-mg/ml dose group. At 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml, bortezomib potentiated IMQ-induced erythema, scaling, skin thickening, and caused necrotic lesions. Lower doses had no effect on the clinical observations. Histologically, bortezomib dose-dependently increased parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This study demonstrated that topical bortezomib is not suitable for the treatment of psoriasis.
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