Background: The number of treatment options in the diabetes arena has grown dramatically in a short period of time, with a corresponding increase in the breadth and depth of literature from which physicians and diabetes organizations make evidence-based decisions. Thus, the purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the literature describing current treatment options and guidelines available for the management of type 2 diabetes and prevention of its complications.
Methods: Pubmed searches were conducted for recent literature pertaining to the prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes. Comprehensive search terms were devised to identify articles describing micro- and macrovascular complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions: The current body of literature demonstrates that a significant reduction in the incidence of diabetic complications is achievable with early initiation and long-term maintenance of controlled blood glucose and cardiovascular risk factors. Screening for diabetic complications should be initiated early and continued at regular intervals to ensure early pharmacological intervention.