During the past three years great advances have been made in the chemistry and biology of chemoattractants for human leukocytes. Two chemoattractant cytokines have been isolated, sequenced and cloned, each with distinctive leukocyte attractant specificity. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), the subject of this review by Edward Leonard and Teizo Yoshimura, is secreted by PHA-stimulated mononuclear cells and can be identified by northern blotting in response to LPS or PHA. It attracts monocytes but not neutrophils. In contrast, neutrophil attractant/activation protein (NAP-1) (also known as interleukin 8 (IL-8)) attracts and activates human neutrophils but it is not a chemoattractant for human monocytes. Based on amino acid sequence analysis, each of these attractants has been assigned to one of two distinct families of cytokines that are thought to participate in host defense and inflammatory responses.