Endogenous mechanisms in the resolution of acute inflammation are of interest because excessive inflammation underlies many pathologic abnormalities. We report an aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes a potent product in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. The complete stereochemistry of AT-(NPD1/PD1) proved to be 10R,17R-dihydroxydocosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid. The chirality of hydroxyl groups and geometry of the conjugated triene system essential for bioactivity were established by matching biological materials with stereochemically pure isomers prepared by organic synthesis. AT-(NPD1/PD1) reduced neutrophil (PMN) recruitment in murine peritonitis in a dose-dependent fashion whereby neither a Δ(15)-trans-isomer nor DHA was effective. With human cells, AT-(NPD1/PD1) decreased transendothelial PMN migration as well as enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic human PMN by macrophages. These results indicate that AT-(NPD1/PD1) is a potent anti-inflammatory proresolving molecule.
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