Low-volume High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Hyperglycemia and Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec;111(6):1554-60. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00921.2011. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Abstract

Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (63 ± 8 yr, body mass index 32 ± 6 kg/m(2), Hb(A1C) 6.9 ± 0.7%) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed six sessions of HIT (10 × 60-s cycling bouts eliciting ∼90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest) over 2 wk. Before training and from ∼48 to 72 h after the last training bout, glucose regulation was assessed using 24-h continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions. Markers of skeletal muscle metabolic capacity were measured in biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) before and after (72 h) training. Average 24-h blood glucose concentration was reduced after training (7.6 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mmol/l) as was the sum of the 3-h postprandial areas under the glucose curve for breakfast, lunch, and dinner (both P < 0.05). Training increased muscle mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by higher citrate synthase maximal activity (∼20%) and protein content of Complex II 70 kDa subunit (∼37%), Complex III Core 2 protein (∼51%), and Complex IV subunit IV (∼68%, all P < 0.05). Mitofusin 2 (∼71%) and GLUT4 (∼369%) protein content were also higher after training (both P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that low-volume HIT can rapidly improve glucose control and induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that are linked to improved metabolic health in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitochondria, Muscle / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Physical Fitness
  • Pilot Projects

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • SLC2A4 protein, human