Controlling phosphorous (P) inputs through management of its sources and transport is critical for limiting freshwater eutrophication. In this study, characteristics of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) and P and their losses with surface runoff (both in the water and sediments) during simulated rainfall experiments (83 mm h⁻¹) were investigated. The results revealed that on average most REEs (La, 94%; Nd, 93%; Sm, 96%) and P (96%) transported with sediments in the runoff. The total amounts of losses of REEs and P in the runoff were significantly correlated, suggesting the possibility of using REEs to trace the fate of agricultural nonpoint P losses.
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