Trends in vitamin D intake from food sources among adults in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area, 1980-1982 through 2007-2009

J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Sep;111(9):1329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.06.009.


Background: Changes in eating habits could potentially be contributing to vitamin D insufficiency among US adults.

Objective: Describe secular trends in vitamin D intake from food sources during the past 25 years.

Design: Trends in dietary vitamin D intake from 1980-1982 to 2007-2009 were examined using data collected from the Minnesota Heart Survey, a surveillance study of trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease among probability samples of adults aged 25 to 74 years in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area. Surveys were conducted in 1980-1982, 1985-1987, 1990-1992, 1995-1997, 2000-2002, and 2007-2009. One 24-hour recall was collected from survey participants during each survey period.

Results: Vitamin D intake from food sources decreased between 1980-1982 and 2007-2009 among men, with age-adjusted mean vitamin D intake decreasing from 7.24 μg/day in 1980-1982 to 6.15 μg/day in 2007-2009 (P for trend <0.001). A decrease was also observed among women (4.77 μg/day in 1980-1982 in comparison to 4.53 μg/day in 2007-2009; P for trend <0.001).

Conclusions: Results suggest that vitamin D intake from food sources has been on the decline during the past 25 years among men and women, potentially contributing to vitamin D insufficiency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data
  • Diet / trends*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Middle Aged
  • Minnesota / epidemiology
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Primary Prevention
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / prevention & control


  • Vitamin D