Development and validation of a movement and activity in physical space score as a functional outcome measure

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Oct;92(10):1652-8. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.05.001. Epub 2011 Aug 27.


Objective: To develop and validate a functional measure, the Movement and Activity in Physical Space (MAPS) score, that encompasses both physical activity and environmental interaction.

Design: Observational matched-pair cohort with 2-month follow-up.

Setting: General community under free-living conditions.

Participants: Adult participants (N=18; n=9 postsurgical, n=9 matched control; mean age ± SD, 28.9 ± 12.0y) were monitored by an accelerometer and global positioning system receiver for 3 days within 1 week (4.1 ± 2.8d) after knee surgery (T=0) and 2 months later (T+2). The healthy controls were matched for age, sex, smoking, perceived physical activity level, and occupation of a postsurgical participant. Correlation, t test (with Bonferroni adjustment: α=.05/2), analysis of variance, and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to establish validity and reliability evidence.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main outcome measure: MAPS scores.

Results: MAPS scores were moderately correlated with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (P<.05). There was a significant group difference at T = 0 for MAPS (t(9.9)=-3.60; P=.01). Analysis of variance results for the MAPS indicated a time and group interaction (F(1,12)=4.60, P=.05). Reliability of 3 days of MAPS scores ranged from 0.75 to 0.81 (postsurgical and control), and 2-month test-retest reliability in the control group was 0.94.

Conclusions: The results provide a foundation of convergent and known-group difference validity evidence along with reliability evidence for the use of MAPS as a functional outcome measure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration
  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Female
  • Geographic Information Systems
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Motor Activity*
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / physiopathology*
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / surgery*
  • Recovery of Function
  • Reproducibility of Results