Transgender individuals' workplace experiences: the applicability of sexual minority measures and models

J Couns Psychol. 2012 Jan;59(1):60-70. doi: 10.1037/a0025206. Epub 2011 Aug 29.


The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Climate Inventory (LGBTCI; B. J. Liddle, D. A. Luzzo, A. L. Hauenstein, & K. Schuck, 2004); and the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; M. Z. Anderson, J. M. Croteau, Y. B. Chung, & T. M. DiStefano, 2001) were modified to explicitly address the experiences of transgender individuals. Data from a sample of 263 transgender individuals were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Analyses of the structures of the modified measures (Transgender Forms [TF]) suggested an alternative 2-factor structure for the WHEQ-TF, but provided support for the previously observed unidimensional structure for the LGBTCI-TF, and a slightly modified 3-factor structure for the WSIMM-TF. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for scale or subscale items across the 3 measures were acceptable. Criterion-related validity was evident in theoretically consistent patterns of correlations between scores on the 3 modified measures and scores on indicators of job satisfaction and outness. These data provide preliminary support for transgender-specific versions of measures of 3 key constructs in the sexual minority vocational behavior research.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bisexuality / psychology
  • Career Choice
  • Gender Identity
  • Homosexuality / psychology
  • Humans
  • Job Satisfaction*
  • Middle Aged
  • Minority Groups / psychology*
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Prejudice*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Social Environment*
  • Social Identification
  • Social Perception*
  • Transsexualism / psychology*
  • Young Adult