Background & aims: The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have proven clinical efficacy in Crohn's disease. Here, we assessed the effects of anti-TNF antibodies on apoptosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Methods: CD14(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood and lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with IBD and control patients. Cell surface markers and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting techniques.
Results: Lamina propria CD14(+) macrophages showed significantly more frequent and higher membrane-bound TNF (mTNF) expression than CD4(+) T cells in IBD, whereas mTNF-dependent signaling proteins such as TNF receptor (TNFR) 2, TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2, and nuclear factor κB were induced in IBD mucosal CD4(+) T cells. Most anti-TNF antibodies did not induce T-cell apoptosis in purified peripheral or mucosal CD4(+) T cells. However, in contrast to etanercept, administration of all clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies resulted in a significant induction of T-cell apoptosis in IBD when lamina propria CD4(+) T cells expressing TNFR2(+) were cocultured with mTNF(+) CD14(+) intestinal macrophages. In contrast, no effects in control patients were noted. T-cell apoptosis in IBD occurred in vivo after treatment with adalimumab and infliximab, was critically dependent on TNFR2 signaling, and could be prevented via interleukin-6 signal transduction. Blockade of interleukin-6R signaling augmented anti-TNF-induced T-cell apoptosis in IBD.
Conclusions: Clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies are able to induce T-cell apoptosis in IBD only when mucosal TNFR2(+) T cells are cocultured with mTNF-expressing CD14(+) macrophages. The finding that anti-TNF antibodies induce apoptosis indirectly by targeting the mTNF/TNFR2 pathway may have important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies in IBD.
Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.