Discriminative prediction of mammalian enhancers from DNA sequence

Genome Res. 2011 Dec;21(12):2167-80. doi: 10.1101/gr.121905.111. Epub 2011 Aug 29.


Accurately predicting regulatory sequences and enhancers in entire genomes is an important but difficult problem, especially in large vertebrate genomes. With the advent of ChIP-seq technology, experimental detection of genome-wide EP300/CREBBP bound regions provides a powerful platform to develop predictive tools for regulatory sequences and to study their sequence properties. Here, we develop a support vector machine (SVM) framework which can accurately identify EP300-bound enhancers using only genomic sequence and an unbiased set of general sequence features. Moreover, we find that the predictive sequence features identified by the SVM classifier reveal biologically relevant sequence elements enriched in the enhancers, but we also identify other features that are significantly depleted in enhancers. The predictive sequence features are evolutionarily conserved and spatially clustered, providing further support of their functional significance. Although our SVM is trained on experimental data, we also predict novel enhancers and show that these putative enhancers are significantly enriched in both ChIP-seq signal and DNase I hypersensitivity signal in the mouse brain and are located near relevant genes. Finally, we present results of comparisons between other EP300/CREBBP data sets using our SVM and uncover sequence elements enriched and/or depleted in the different classes of enhancers. Many of these sequence features play a role in specifying tissue-specific or developmental-stage-specific enhancer activity, but our results indicate that some features operate in a general or tissue-independent manner. In addition to providing a high confidence list of enhancer targets for subsequent experimental investigation, these results contribute to our understanding of the general sequence structure of vertebrate enhancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CREB-Binding Protein*
  • Cerebral Cortex / cytology
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Genome / physiology*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / methods
  • Mice
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods
  • Organ Specificity / physiology
  • Response Elements / physiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • CREB-Binding Protein
  • Crebbp protein, mouse