Purpose: To estimate the risk of breast cancer in a woman who has a CHEK2 mutation depending on her family history of breast cancer.
Patients and methods: Seven thousand four hundred ninety-four BRCA1 mutation-negative patients with breast cancer and 4,346 control women were genotyped for four founder mutations in CHEK2 (del5395, IVS2+1G>A, 1100delC, and I157T).
Results: A truncating mutation (IVS2+1G>A, 1100delC, or del5395) was present in 227 patients (3.0%) and in 37 female controls (0.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% CI, 2.6 to 5.1). The OR was higher for women with a first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 3.3 to 7.6) than for women with no family history (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.3 to 4.7). If both a first- and second-degree relative were affected with breast cancer, the OR was 7.3 (95% CI, 3.2 to 16.8). Assuming a baseline risk of 6%, we estimate the lifetime risks for carriers of CHEK2 truncating mutations to be 20% for a woman with no affected relative, 28% for a woman with one second-degree relative affected, 34% for a woman with one first-degree relative affected, and 44% for a woman with both a first- and second-degree relative affected.
Conclusion: CHEK2 mutation screening detects a clinically meaningful risk of breast cancer and should be considered in all women with a family history of breast cancer. Women with a truncating mutation in CHEK2 and a positive family history of breast cancer have a lifetime risk of breast cancer of greater than 25% and are candidates for magnetic resonance imaging screening and for tamoxifen chemoprevention.