Anti-apoptotic machinery protects the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea from host-induced apoptotic-like cell death during plant infection

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Aug;7(8):e1002185. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002185. Epub 2011 Aug 18.


Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an anti-apoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Apoptosis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Botrytis / genetics
  • Botrytis / pathogenicity*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / physiology*
  • Indoles / pharmacology
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Thiazoles / pharmacology


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Indoles
  • Thiazoles
  • camalexin