To determine the prevalence of congenital melanoevocytic nevi (CMN), of so-called congenital nevus-like nevi (CNLN), nevi spili (NS) and café-au-lait spots (CLS) in childhood, a series of 939 children aged 8-16 years had total skin examination. CMN/CNLN were observed in a frequency of 5.9%, NS in 2.1% and CLS even in 32.7%. Except CLS (which occurred more frequently in boys), all of these lesions were equally represented in both sexes. According to the classification of Kopf and coworkers, 44/55 CNM/CNLN were small and 11/55 medium-sized. CMN/CNLN affected preferentially trunk and upper limbs while head and neck were spared. Such nevi occurred more frequently in dark types of skin complexion and showed a tendency to be more frequent in groups of patients with increased average number of acquired melanonevocytic nevi. Remarkably, CLS were also found in 23/55 (41.7%) children with CMN/CNLN and in 12/20 (60%) children with NS (in a higher frequency than such combinations have to be expected). Compared with the data from other studies, both CMN/CNLN and CLS in our patients were observed in highest prevalence in the literature. Since the frequency of CLS in adults is much lower, it cannot be ruled out that some of the CLS disappear in adolescence.