Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai 2007-2010

Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Jun;140(6):1122-30. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811001622. Epub 2011 Aug 31.


We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological data of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases from the largest paediatric infectious diseases centre in Shanghai between 2007 and 2010. A total of 28 058 outpatients were diagnosed with HFMD, of which 3948 (14.07%) were hospitalized, 730 (2.60%) had complications with neurological disorders and pulmonary oedema/haemorrhage, and 11 (0.04%) died. The peak season was the summer months. Boys were more affected than girls. Since 2008, the major population group affected has shifted from native Shanghainese children attending preschool to migrant children and younger children cared for at home. Children aged 1-4 years constituted 82.27% of cases. EV-A71 was tested in clinical samples taken from severe cases in 2009 and 2010, and from most inpatients in 2010. EV-A71 was positive in 99.17% and 86.31% of severe cases, respectively in 2009 and 2010. All 12 cases with pulmonary oedema or haemorrhage were infected with EV-A71. Ten (90.90%) of 11 fatal cases were attributable to EV-A71 infection. In 2010, EV-A71-positive cases accounted for 54.12% of inpatients. The dominant circulation of EV-A71 led to the outbreak of HFMD and occurrence of severe and fatal cases.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • China / epidemiology
  • Enterovirus / classification
  • Enterovirus / isolation & purification*
  • Enterovirus A, Human / classification
  • Enterovirus A, Human / isolation & purification*
  • Female
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / epidemiology*
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease / mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Time Factors
  • Transients and Migrants*