Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) regulates energy homeostasis, and BRS-3 agonism is being explored as a possible therapy for obesity. Here we study the role of BRS-3 in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucose homeostasis. We quantified BRS-3 mRNA in pancreatic islets from multiple species and examined the acute effects of Bag-1, a selective BRS-3 agonist, on GSIS in mouse, rat, and human islets, and on oral glucose tolerance in mice. BRS-3 is highly expressed in human, mouse, rhesus, and dog (but not rat) pancreatic islets and in rodent insulinoma cell lines (INS-1 832/3 and MIN6). Silencing BRS-3 with small interfering RNA or pharmacological blockade with a BRS-3 antagonist, Bantag-1, reduced GSIS in 832/3 cells. In contrast, the BRS-3 agonist (Bag-1) increased GSIS in 832/3 and MIN6 cells. The augmentation of GSIS by Bag-1 was completely blocked by U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. Bag-1 also enhanced GSIS in islets isolated from wild-type, but not Brs3 knockout mice. In vivo, Bag-1 reduced glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test in a BRS-3-dependent manner. BRS-3 agonists also increased GSIS in human islets. These results identify a potential role for BRS-3 in islet physiology, with agonism directly promoting GSIS. Thus, in addition to its potential role in the treatment of obesity, BRS-3 may also regulate blood glucose levels and have a role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.