Dental pulp stem cells (hDP-SCs) were primarily derived from pulp tissues of primary incisors, exfoliated deciduous and permanent third molar teeth. To understand the characteristics of hDP-SCs from impacted third molar, proliferation capacities, gene expression profiles, phenotypic, ultrastructural, and differentiation characteristics were analyzed in comparison with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs), extensively. hDP-SCs showed more developed and metabolically active cells. Contrary to hBM-MSCs, hDP-SCs strongly expressed both cytokeratin (CK)-18 and -19, which could involve in odontoblast differentiation and dentine repair. The intrinsic neuro-glia characteristics of hDP-MSCs were demonstrated by the expression of several specific transcripts and proteins of neural stem cell and neurons. These cells not only differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineage, but also share some special characteristics of expressing some neural stem cell and epithelial markers. Under defined conditions, hDP-SCs are able to differentiate into both neural and vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Dental pulp might provide an alternative source for human MSCs. hDP-SCs with a promising differentiation capacity could be easily isolated, and possible clinical use could be developed for neurodegenerative and oral diseases in the future.