A rapid and comprehensive qualitative method has been developed to characterize the different classes of polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavanols/proanthocyanidins, in grape products. The detection was achieved by two runs with the same LC gradient in different MS ionization modes and mobile phase modifiers (positive ionization mode and 0.4% trifluoroacetic acid for anthocyanins and flavonols; negative ionization mode and 0.1% formic acid for phenolic acids and flavanols). From an analysis of the MS and UV data and in comparison with the authenticated standards, a total of 53 compounds were identified, including 33 anthocyanins, 12 flavonols, 4 phenolic acids, and 4 flavanols/proanthocyanidins. With the method developed, a survey was then conducted to qualitatively assess the composition of polyphenols among 29 different grape products including original grape, grape juice, grape wine, and grape-derived dietary supplements, and their chemical profiles were systematically compared. This method provided a comprehensive qualitative insight into the composition of polyphenols in grape-derived products.