Aldehyde stress and up-regulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant systems accompany functional adaptations in cardiac mitochondria from mice fed n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Biochem J. 2012 Jan 1;441(1):359-66. doi: 10.1042/BJ20110626.


Diets replete with n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) are known to have therapeutic potential for the heart, although a specifically defined duration of the n-3 PUFA diet required to achieve these effects remains unknown, as does their mechanism of action. The present study was undertaken to establish whether adaptations in mitochondrial function and stress tolerance in the heart is evident following short- (3 weeks) and long- (14 weeks) term dietary intervention of n-3 PUFAs, and to identify novel mechanisms by which these adaptations occur. Mitochondrial respiration [mO2 (mitochondrial O2)], H2O2 emission [mH2O2 (mitochondrial H2O2)] and Ca2+-retention capacity [mCa2+ (mitochondrial Ca2+)] were assessed in mouse hearts following dietary intervention. Mice fed n-3 PUFAs for 14 weeks showed significantly lower mH2O2 and greater mCa2+ compared with all other groups. However, no significant differences were observed after 3 weeks of the n-3 PUFA diet, or in mice fed on an HFC (high-fat control) diet enriched with vegetable shortening, containing almost no n-3 PUFAs, for 14 weeks. Interestingly, expression and activity of key enzymes involved in antioxidant and phase II detoxification pathways, all mediated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2), were elevated in hearts from mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet, but not hearts from mice fed the HFC diet, even at 3 weeks. This increase in antioxidant systems in hearts from mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet was paralleled by increased levels of 4-hydroxyhexenal protein adducts, an aldehyde formed from peroxidation of n-3 PUFAs. The findings of the present study demonstrate distinct time-dependent effects of n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial function and antioxidant response systems in the heart. In addition, they are the first to provide direct evidence that non-enzymatic oxidation products of n-3 PUFAs may be driving mitochondrial and redox-mediated adaptations, thereby revealing a novel mechanism for n-3 PUFA action in the heart.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / drug effects
  • Aldehydes / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / pharmacology*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mitochondria, Heart / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria, Heart / metabolism
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / drug effects
  • Up-Regulation


  • Aldehydes
  • Antioxidants
  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • Nfe2l2 protein, mouse
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Oxygen
  • Calcium