Beneficial nutraceutical modulation of cerebral erythropoietin expression and oxidative stress: an experimental study

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. Apr-Jun 2011;25(2):187-94.


The main object of this study is to examine the effect of Klamin®, a nutraceutical containing phenylethylamine, phycocyanins, mycosporine-like aminoacids and aphanizomenon flos aquae-phytochrome on the learning and memory ability, the oxidative status and cerebral erythropoietin and its receptor EPO/EPOR system in prematurely senescent (PS) mice. A total of 28 PS mice, selected according to a prior T-maze test, and 26 non-prematurely senescent mice (NPS) mice were chosen. PS animals were divided into 3 groups and followed for 4 weeks: A) normal chow diet; B) added with Klamin® at 20 mg/kg/day (low dose); C) added with Klamin® at 100mg/kg/day (high dose). A further group of NPS mice given either normal food (group D) or high dose Klamin® (group E) was also considered. The behavioral procedures of spatial learning ability (Morris test) showed that PS mice had significantly longer learning time as compared to their NPS counterpart (p<0.01), but this effect was prevented especially in mice supplemented with high-dose Klamin® (p<0.05) which improved performances in NPS mice (p<0.05). High-dose Klamin® supplementation restored the depleted total thiol concentration in the brain observed in PS mice while normalizing their increased malonildialdehyde level (p<0.05). Moreover, the high-dosage only caused a significant upregulation of EPO/EPOR system both in PS and in NPS animals (p<0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that this specific alga Klamath extract has considerable antioxidant and adaptogenic properties, also through a stimulatory effect of cerebral EPO/EPO system.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aging / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / physiology
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Erythropoietin / biosynthesis*
  • Erythropoietin / blood
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / analysis
  • Maze Learning / drug effects*
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Models, Animal
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phenethylamines / pharmacology
  • Phycocyanin / pharmacology
  • Phytochrome / pharmacology
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin / analysis
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin / biosynthesis*
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / analysis
  • Up-Regulation


  • Antioxidants
  • Phenethylamines
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Phycocyanin
  • Erythropoietin
  • Phytochrome
  • Malondialdehyde